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freeze-drying is considered to be the optimum drying technology for removing water from heat-sensitive materials such as fruits and vegetables in order to create dried products. FD is able to remove water from the product by the process of sublimation at extremely low temperatures and pressures, which maintains the product's high quality after drying. When compared to other methods of dehydration, the FD possesses important characteristics such as the ability to retain original structure and color, minimal loss of nutrients, and excellent rehydration capability due to the development of a porous structure in the product. These characteristics allow the FD to outperform other methods of dehydration. Because of this, FD is the method of choice for drying fruits, vegetables, and the extracts of these foods in order to make high-value products. However, the majority of the freeze dryers that are currently on the market require a longer drying time, which results in high levels of energy consumption and high initial investment costs.